Glossary of Terms:



· ·  A  · ·

Agriculture Employment
  Persons on agriculture payrolls who work or receive pay for any period during the survey week. This includes owners, operators, unpaid family members who work at least 15 hours a week, and hired laborers
America's Job Bank (AJB)
  A computerized network which links the 2,000 state Employment Service offices and provides job seekers with a large pool of active job opportunities.
America's Labor Market Information System (ALMIS)
  A system that provides comprehensive economic and occupational data for job seekers, employers, students, counselors, economic developers and other users.
America's Talent Bank (ATB)
  A nationwide database of electronic resumes that can be searched electronically by employers.
  A structured approach for entering a skilled occupation in most of the major trade industries. Combines training on the job with related and supplemental instruction at school.
Auxiliary establishment
  In the SIC coding system, a unit which is primarily engaged in performing services for other units of the same company rather than for other companies or the general public. Examples of auxiliary establishments are central administrative offices; research, development or testing labs; warehouses; and power plants.
  The numerical result obtained by dividing the sum of two or more quantities by the number of quantities.

· ·  B  · ·

  A point of reference (either an estimate or a count) from which measurements can be made or upon which adjustments to estimates are based. See individual program glossaries for specific program references to benchmarks.
  The difference between the expected value of the estimate from a probability sample and the true value of the population.
  Those units that are within scope of a survey as of the reference date of the survey but were not in the sampling frame. They include units that existed in the universe but were not on the sampling frame as well as units that came into existence after the creation of the sampling frame.
Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)
  Part of the U.S. Department of Commerce. A Federal statistical agency responsible for estimation of Gross Domestic Product. Data from the CES and ES-202 programs are used in the GDP estimates.
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS)
  Part of the U.S. Department of Labor, this Federal agency functions as the principal data-gathering agency of the Federal government in the field of labor economics. The BLS collects, processes, analyzes, and disseminates data relating to employment, unemployment, the labor force, productivity, prices, family expenditures, wages, industrial relations, and occupational safety and health. Well-known data released by BLS include: the Consumer Price Index, the Producer Price Index, the unemployment rate, and nonagricultural employment levels.
Bureau of the Census
  Part of the U.S. Department of Commerce. It conducts censuses of population and housing every 1O years and of agriculture, business, governments, manufactures, mineral industries, and transportation at 5-year intervals. The Census Bureau also conducts the monthly Current Population Survey (CPS) in cooperation with BLS. Data from this survey are the source of unemployment statistics.
Business Cycle
  A periodically repeated sequence of fluctuations in the aggregate economy of an area, or the nation as a whole, varying in duration, but consisting of: a) upturn, including recovery and prosperity b) cyclical peak c) downturn including recession and d) cyclical trough.
Business Establishment List (BEL)
  A master file of all employers covered under UI. The BLS maintains a master BEL file, and each SESA separately keeps it own State file. These files are used as sampling frames and also are the main source of establishment names and addresses for the various Federal/State cooperative surveys. Information contained on these files includes monthly employment, quarterly wages, an Employer Identification Number, an SIC code, an establishment name and address, and a state, county, and ownership code.

· ·  C  · ·

  A complete count (as opposed to a sample) of a specified population or some other measurable characteristic in a given area (housing, industry, etc.).
Census tracts
  Census-designated units are small parts of MA's and provide statistically comparable population and housing census tabulations. Tracts are designed to be relatively similar in population characteristics, economic status, and living conditions. The average tract has about 4,000 inhabitants. Census tract boundaries are recommended by local census tract committees and approved by the Bureau of the Census.
Certainty unit
  A universe unit whose probability of selection is one, therefore, it is sure to be included in the sample.
Civilian Labor Force
  The summation of all civilian non-institutionalized persons 16 years of age and over who are classified as employed or unemployed and seeking employment.
Confidence interval
  A measure of the range of probable parameters attributable to the sample design (estimate plus or minus the standard error). The BLS standard is generally the 90 percent level of confidence.
Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA)
  Adjoining Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) having a combined population of one million or more. When combined into a CMSA, each component metropolitan area is referred to as a Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area (PMSA).
Consumer Price Index (CPI)
  A Bureau of Labor Statistics program which measures the average change in the prices of a fixed set of goods and services purchased by households. It is the most commonly recognized measure of inflation.
  The statistical technique that relates a pair of variables in order to determine how close the relationship is between the variables.
County Business Patterns (CBP)
  An annual publication issued by the Bureau of the Census. CBP provides establishment-based employment totals of all employees covered under Social Security, by State and county, and by industry. The data are for March of the reference year, but are published 2-3 years after the reference period. Data are obtained from various Census Bureau establishment surveys and the administrative files of the IRS.
Covered Employment and Earnings (ES 202)
  Federal/state cooperative program that collects and compiles employment and wage data for workers covered by state and federal unemployment insurance laws. Program has now be renamed to Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW)
Current Employment Statistics (CES) Survey
  A monthly survey of non-farm business establishments used to collect wage and salary employment, worker hours, and payroll, by industry and area. Through the Federal/State cooperative effort, these data are used to compute current monthly employment, hours, and earnings estimates, by industry, for the nation, the 50 States and the District of Columbia, and over 250 MA's.
Current Population Survey (CPS)
  A monthly household survey of the civilian noninstitutional population, and wages, by industry, occupation, and demographic characteristics. Estimates are prepared directly by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) and are used by the Michigan Department of Labor and Economic Growth (MDLEG) as an input to derive civilian labor force, total employment and unemployment estimates for the state. There are approximately 2,000 Michigan households included in this survey. Microdata for this survey are collected by the Bureau of the Census.

· ·  D  · ·

  Units that were in a sampling frame but are not now within the scope of the survey. They include units that have gone out of business, have changed to an out-of-scope SIC, or were erroneously included on the sampling frame.
Department of Labor (DOL)
  Cabinet-level agency which enforces laws protecting workers, promotes labor-management cooperation, sponsors employment training and placement services, oversees the unemployment insurance system, and produces statistics on the labor force and living conditions.
  Divide a statistic into its component parts.
  The Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles.
Durable goods
  Manufactured items generally considered to have a normal life expectancy of three years of more. Includes 2-digit SIC codes 24, 25, 32-39. Automobiles, furniture, household appliances, and mobile homes are common examples.

· ·  E  · ·

Economic indicator
  A set of data that serves as a tool for analyzing current economic conditions and future prospects. Usually classified according to their timing in relationship to the ups and downs of the business cycle, that is, whether they anticipate (lead), coincide with, or lag behind general business conditions.
Employer Identification Number (EIN)
  A 9-digit identification number assigned to employers by the U.S Internal Revenue Service.
Employment, Total
  An unduplicated estimate of area residents who earned wages during the week including the 12th of each month. This estimate includes agricultural employees, self-employed and unpaid family workers, domestics and strikers, as well as residents who were employed in wage and salary jobs.
Employment and Earnings
  A monthly publication of the Bureau of Labor Statistics containing current data for the CPS, CES, and LAUS programs.
Employment and Training Administration (ETA)
  A part of the U.S. Department of Labor. This agency oversees the State UI programs and job training and placement services provided by State Employment Security Agencies.
ES202 Program
  A Federal/State cooperative program which collects and compiles employment and wage data for workers covered by State unemployment insurance (UI) laws, and Federal civilian workers covered by UCFE. State Employment Security Agencies collect and compile quarterly UI contribution reports that are submitted by all employers. These data are maintained in the State in micro and macrodata forms, and are also shipped to BLS. Any data from this program may be generically referred to as ES-202 data.
  An economic unit that produces goods or services, usually at a single physical location, and engages in one or predominantly one activity.
  A numerical quantity calculated from sample data, or from a model, and intended to provide information about a universe.
Estimating cell
  The most basic or lowest level (or strata) for which estimates are made. All higher level strata are aggregations of estimating cells. For establishment surveys, the estimating cell structure is generally stratified by SIC, area, and size of establishment. For household surveys, the estimating cell structure is generally stratified by demographic characteristic.
  To project values of a variable in an unobserved interval from values within an already observed interval.

· ·  F  · ·

Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS)
  Standards for information processing issues by the National Bureau of Standards in the U.S. Department of Commerce. Includes a numeric designation for geographic areas such as States, counties, and MA's.
Federal Reserve Board (Fed)
  An independent government agency primarily responsible for keeping inflation under control. The Fed's best weapon in the fight against inflation is control over certain short-term interest rates. The Fed is a key user of Federal/State program data.
Federal/State Cooperative Programs
  A series of programs in which the States and Federal government cooperate in accomplishing the goals of the program. CES, ES-202, OES, and LAUS are Federal/State cooperative programs.
  A business entity, either corporate or otherwise. May consist of one or several establishments.
Fiscal Year (FY)
  A 12-month period established for budgetary and accounting purposes. In the Federal Government, the fiscal year begins October 1 and ends September 30.
Foreign Direct Investment Program
  A Bureau of Labor Statistics program initiated in 1991 to assess the impact of foreign direct investment in the U.S. on both industrial and occupational employment. The FDI program uses data from the ES-202 Quarterly Unemployment Insurance files, the Occupational Employment Statistics survey, and the Bureau of Economic Analysis.
FUTA : Federal Unemployment Tax Act
  This Act became Chapter 23, Sections 3301-331 1, of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code, authorizing the tax imposed on employers with respect to persons they employ for the purpose of funding unemployment insurance benefits. The FUTA made possible the federal/state system that established an employment security program in each state.

· ·  G  · ·

GDP : Gross Domestic Product
  The total of all goods and services produced by the US economy. GDP is compiled quarterly by the US Department of Commerce. CES employment and earnings data are used for advance GDP estimates. ES-202 wage data are used for the final GDP estimates.
Goods producing industries
  In the SIC coding structure, those industries that primarily produce goods. Mining, construction, and manufacturing.

· ·  H  · ·

  As defined by the Census Bureau, all persons who occupy a housing unit. A housing unit is a room or group of rooms intended for occupancy as separate living quarters and having either a separate entrance or complete cooking facilities for the exclusive use of the occupants.

· ·  I  · ·

  Describes the type of economic activity engaged in by a group of firms as used in the compilation of economic statistics. The Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system provides numerical classifications for industries.
Industry Employment (by Place of Work)
  An estimate of the number of Nonagriculture, Wage and Salary jobs produced by the Current Employment Statistics program survey of employers. The monthly estimates are based on the survey week that include the 12th day of the month.
  To estimate values of a variable between two known values.

· ·  J  · ·

Job Opening
  A specific position of employment at an establishment. Conditions include that there is work available for that position, the job could start within 30 days, and the employer is actively recruiting for the position.
Journey Level
  A fully qualified worker in a specific trade.

· ·  K  · ·


· ·  L  · ·

Labor dispute
  A controversy concerning terms or conditions of employment, or concerning the association or representation of persons in negotiating, fixing, maintaining, changing, or seeking to arrange terms or conditions of employment, regardless of whether or not the disputants stand in the proximate relation of employer and employee.
Labor Market Area (LMA)
  An economically integrated geographical unit within which workers may readily change jobs without changing their place of residence. All States are divided into exhaustive LMA's, which usually consist of (except in New England) a county or a group of contiguous counties.
Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS)
  A Federal/State cooperative program which produces employment, labor force, and unemployment estimates for States and local areas.
Labor Market Information (LMI)
  1. The body of data available on the particular labor market, including employment and unemployment statistics, occupational statistics, and average hours and earnings data.
  2. LMI is also used to refer to the statistical research and analysis offices of the State Employment Security Agencies. These offices are also referred to as Research and Analysis (R&A) or Research and Statistics (R&S) offices.


· ·  M  · ·

  Single establishment or household (micro) data aggregated to any level. Data at the estimating cell level and summary cell levels are all macrodata. Compare to microdata.
Mass Layoff Statistics Program
  A BLS Federal/State cooperative program that collects and publishes data on mass layoffs.
Mean Square Error (MSE)
  A measure of the total error that can arise in an estimate. It is equal to the variance plus the bias squared. Mean square error is a more comprehensive measure of estimation error than is variance and, hence, is an important statistical analytical tool.
Metropolitan Area (MA)
  A geographic area comprising a county containing a central city of 50,000 inhabitants or more, plus contiguous counties that are socially and economically integrated with the central city. There are 3 types of MA's: MSA'S, PMSA'S, and CMSA'S. A Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) is a relatively free standing MA typically surrounded by nonmetropolitan counties. If an area that qualifies as an MA has more than 1 million inhabitants, Primary Metropolitan Statistical Areas (PMSAS) may be defined within in. PMSAs consist of a large urbanized county or cluster of counties that demonstrates very strong internal economic and social links, but are also linked to other portions of the larger area. This larger area is then called a Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area (PMSA).
Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSA's)
  Designated and defined by the U.S. Department of Commerce so that local economic and social statistics collected by many government and private organizations may be presented on a common geographic basis. Areas qualifying as metropolitan statistical areas have either a city with a population of at least 50,000 or a Bureau of the Census urbanized area of at least 50,000 and a total metropolitan statistical area population of at least 100,000.
  Data reported from an individual establishment or household. Data on a single BLS790 form or a single Ul contribution report are microdata. Compare to macrodata.
Months for Cyclical Dominance (MCD)
  An estimate of the time span required to identify significant cyclical movements in a monthly economic time series. The MCD indicates the shortest span of months over which changes in the series are dominated by cyclical rather than irregular or erratic movements.
Moving average
  A series of calculations made by initially taking the simple average, or arithmetic mean, of a consecutive number of items, and then dropping the first item and adding the next item in sequence and averaging, so that the number of items in the series remains constant. This is a continuous process.
Multi establishment
  A firm or reporting unit which consists of more than one establishment. Mean - A number typifying or representing a set of observations, obtained by dividing the sum of the observations by the number of observations. The mean can be weighted or unweighted.

· ·  N  · ·

Nonagricultural Wage and Salary Employment
  An estimate of all part- and full-time wage and salary employees who worked during, or received pay from the pay period that included the 12 th day of the month. Estimates measure the number of jobs by industry and reflects employment by place of work. These statistics are produced by the Current Employment Statistics (CES) program.
Nondurable goods
  Manufactured items generally considered to last for three years or less. Includes 2-digit SIC codes 20-23 and 26-31. Food, beverages, clothing, shoes, and gasoline are common examples. Nonresponse - Failure to obtain usable data for eligible units.
Non sampling error
  Any error in the estimate other than the sampling error. Non-sampling error can arise from the use of an inaccurate sampling frame, improper sample allocation and selection procedures, poorly designed survey questionnaires, inaccurate data clarification/verification techniques, inaccurate reporting or coding from survey respondents, errors in estimation methodology, incorrect specifications, human error in execution and validation, computer program errors, etc. It is important to note that non-sampling errors also occur in censuses.
North American Industry Classification System (NAICS)
  The successor to the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) System. The United States, Mexico, and Canada use this system of classifying business establishments. Due to differences in NAICS and SIC structures, industry Covered Employment & Wage (ES-202) data for 2001 are not comparable to the SIC-based data for earlier years. Current Employment Statistic (CES) data have been reconstructed under NAICS back to 1990. NAICS focuses on how products and services are created, as opposed to the SIC focus on what is produced.

· ·  O  · ·

Occupational Employment Statistics (OES)
  A Federal/State cooperative program that surveys employers and collects detailed occupational and wage data. This program produces occupational staffing pattern estimates with associated wages by industry.
Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
  Located in the Executive Office of the President, this agency prepares the President's budget with the Council of Economic Advisors and the Treasury Department. OMB also oversees all Federal data collection. Among other duties, this federal agency is responsible for enforcing the Paperwork Reduction Act and, in so doing, must approve all surveys and data collection forms that represent a reporting burden on employers.
Optimum Allocation
  An allocation procedure for stratified sampling which, for a given target relative error, will generate the minimum necessary sample size.
Out of Business (OOB)
  Status assigned to a unit that was once active but which has permanently ceased to conduct business or perform services and industrial operations.
Out of Scope (OOS)
  Status assigned to a unit that does not form part of the target population as defined by the scope of a survey. The reported industry (SIC or NAICS), ownership code, or employment of a unit may cause it to fall outside the scope of a survey.
Ownership Code
  A numerical code that specifies the several layers of government and the private sector of the economy.
  • 10 - Federal government
  • 20 - State government
  • 30 - Local government
  • 40 - International or foreign government
  • 50 - Private Sector


· ·  P  · ·

Parent organization or company
  A company that owns or operates one or more subsidiary companies or establishments.
Part Time Employment
  A person employed 34 or less hours per week.
Pay Period
  Frequency with which worker’s wages are calculated and paid; usually weekly, biweekly, semimonthly, or monthly
  Total wages paid by a business to its employees for work performed during the pay period (weekly, monthly, etc.)
Per Capita Income
  A measure of income by unit of population (per person). Total personal income for a given area divided by population of the area.
Personal Income
  Income received from all sources less contributions to social insurance, retirement plans, and social security.
Piece Work
  Work paid for at a fixed rate (piece-rate) per piece of work done.
Place of Residence
  Employment, unemployment, and labor force data based on where workers live rather than where they work.
  The total number of inhabitants occupying an area.
Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area (PMSA)
  If a metropolitan area (MA) has more than 1 million inhabitants it may be defined as a Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area (PMSA). PMSAs consist of a large urbanized county or cluster of counties that demonstrates very strong internal economic and social links, but are also linked to other portions of the larger area. This larger area is then called a PMSA.
Probability of Selection
  (Also referred to as sampling rate and sampling ratio) The numerical value expressing the likelihood that a particular unit will be selected in a sample. All units (within scope) on the sampling frame should have a probability greater than 0, but less than or equal to 1 of being in the sample.
Probability Sampling
  (Also referred to as "Random Sampling") A sampling procedure which gives each of the possible samples a fixed and determinate probability of selection or which gives each unit on a sampling frame a fixed and known chance of being included in the sample. Probability samples permit the calculation, from the sample data, of measures of reliability for the estimates.
Producers Price Index (PPI)
  A Bureau of Labor Statistics program which measures the average change in producers' selling prices of a fixed set of goods and services. The Producer Price Index is sometimes thought of as the "Wholesale" or "Industrial" Price Index.

· ·  Q  · ·

Quarterly Contribution Report (QCR)
  A mandatory report filed quarterly by almost all U.S. employers to the SESA for Unemployment Insurance (UI) purposes. Employers report the number of employees, total wages, and UI taxable wages, and compute their UI tax liability for each UI account. Used by the ES-202 program as input into the ES-202 database.
Quarterly Census of Employment & Wages (QCEW)
  Federal/state cooperative program that collects and compiles employment and wage data for workers covered by state and federal unemployment insurance laws. Program was previously called Covered Employment and Earnings (ES-202)

· ·  R  · ·

Railroad Retirement Board (RRB)
  An independent agency in the executive branch of the U.S. government which administers a comprehensive social insurance system for the nation's railroad workers and their families, providing protection against the loss of income resulting from old age, disability, death, unemployment, and temporary sickness.
Reference date
  The reference date of a sample frame is the date when the characteristics of the population existed on the frame. The reference date of the survey, however, is the date for which the respondents are requested to submit the data.
  A statistical tool which utilizes the relation between two or more variables so that one variable can be predicted or estimated from the other(s).
Relative error
  The difference between the estimate and the actual population value expressed as a percentage of the latter.
Relative standard error
  The ratio of the standard error of an estimator to the estimator's expected value. An estimate of it is the estimated standard error divided by the estimate. (Also coefficient of variation, or CV).
  The degree of confidence that can be assigned to an estimate.

· ·  S  · ·

  A subset of a universe. Usually selected as representative of the universe.
Sample allocation
  The process of assigning a sample size or sampling rate to each stratum in a stratified sampling plan.
Sample frame
  A listing of all units in the universe, from which a sample can be drawn.
Sample refinement
  The process by which newly selected sample units are investigated prior to solicitation. "Sample refinement" can involve identification of establishments within a reporting unit, correction of addresses, determination of industrial classification to a finer level of detail, etc.
Sample survey
  A survey in which only a sample or part of the population is studied.
Sample weight
  A numerical value, assigned to a sample unit for use in estimation. It is equal to the sampling rate reciprocal.
Sampling error
  The measure of sampling variability, that is, the variations that might occur by chance because only a sample of the population is surveyed. In other words, that part of the error of an estimate which is due to the fact that the estimate is obtained from a sample rather than from a census of the universe.
  A term sometimes used to refer to a survey questionnaire.
Seasonal adjustment
  Adjustment of time-series data to eliminate the effect of seasonal variations. Examples of such variations include school terms, holidays, yearly weather patterns, etc.
Series Break
  A large change in the level of a time series resulting from: A major change in methodology; A major change in industry definition; A major industry or area coding error; The permanent loss of a major reporter; Area redefinition. If a series has been broken, data prior to the break are not comparable to data after the break.
Service producing industries
  In the SIC coding structure, those industries that primarily produce services. TPU, Trade, FIRE, Services, and Government.
Staffing Pattern
  Each business employs workers with different types of skills to produce a good or provide a service. A staffing pattern summarizes this array of workers for an industry. The costs of labor and equipment in a local area will largely determine the mix of workers that a business will employ to remain competitive. Industry staffing patterns are often used to determine the ability of a local area to support economic development by being able to provide a skilled workforce.
Standard deviation
  A measure of dispersion around the mean value of a population. Frequently denoted by sigma, (s) is the square root of the variance.
Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Manual
  The manual published by OMB which is the key to the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system. This manual goes into great detail in explaining how to assign and/or interpret SIC codes.
Standard Industrial Classification System (SIC)
  A hierarchical classification system that defines all establishments to a specific industry based on their primary output or product.
Standard Occupational Classification (SOC)
  A numerical coding system that classifies occupational data for the purpose of collecting, calculating, or disseminating data. All workers are classified into one of over 820 occupations according to heir occupational definition. To facilitate classification, occupations are combined to form 23 major groups, 96 minor groups, and 449 broad occupations. Each broad occupation includes detailed occupation(s) requiring similar skills, education, or experience.
State Employment and Security Agency (SESA)
  A generic name for the State agency usually responsible for three activities:
  1. The Unemployment Insurance (UI) Program - UI tax collection, administration, and determination and payment of unemployment benefits.
  2. The Employment or Job Service Program - an exchange for workers seeking work and employers seeking workers.
  3. Research and Analysis - collection, analysis, and publication of labor market information.

  The parts into which a sample frame is partitioned according to predetermined criteria for the purpose of sampling and estimation. In Federal/State programs, these strata are usually based on SIC, geographic area, and size. The process of partitioning the sample frame is called "stratification".
  A study of all or a portion of the whole, conducted for the purpose of making generalized statements about the whole.
  A work stoppage by employees acting together in an attempt to bring pressure on management to give in to their demands concerning wages, working conditions, union recognition, or some other issue.

· ·  T  · ·

Time series
  A variable in which the values are successive observations over time.
Total Employment
  An unduplicated estimate of area residents who earned wages during the week including the 12th of each month. This estimate includes agricultural employees, self-employed and unpaid family workers, domestics and strikers, as well as residents who were employed in wage and salary jobs.
  The long-term or overall movement of a series over time. Any economic time series is assumed to be made up of trend, irregular, cyclical, and seasonal movements.

· ·  U  · ·

  An unduplicated estimate of area residents who did not earn any wages during the survey week including the 12th of the month, and who were able, available, and actively seeking work during the thirty-day period preceding the survey week.
Unemployment Compensation for Federal Employees (UCFE)
  Federal program that provides temporary financial assistance to eligible federal workers who become unemployed. (Federal employees are not covered under state-administered Unemployment Insurance programs.)
Unemployment Insurance (UI)
  Social welfare program first instituted in the Great Depression to provide temporary financial assistance to eligible unemployed workers. Unemployment insurance programs are administered by State Employment Security Agencies under state law, subject to federal minimum standards.
Unemployment Rate
  The total number of unemployed in a given labor market area divided by the civilian labor force in the labor market area.
UI account number
  The State Unemployment Insurance account into which an establishment pays UI contributions. These contributions (taxes) fund Unemployment Insurance benefits for eligible workers. UI account numbers are assigned to firms that may have one or more establishments.
  The entire population to be measured.

· ·  V  · ·

  A mathematical measure of the dispersion of the values of a variable around its mean. The variance may arise from a sampling of the population under study, or may just measure the variability of population values around its mean. The variance is denoted as sigma squared, s2.

· ·  W  · ·

Workforce Investment Act (WIA)
  This 1998 Act provides the framework for a unique national system. The most important aspect of the Act is its focus on meeting the needs of businesses for skilled workers and the training, education, and employment needs of individuals. Key components of the Act will enable customers to easily access information and services they need through the One-Stop system; empower adults to obtain the training they find most appropriate through Individual Training Accounts, and ensure that all State and local programs meet customer expectations.
Working Age Population
  All individuals 16 years or older in the United States. The lower limit of 16 years reflects the age at which most students can leave school voluntarily in most states. There is no upper age limit.

· ·  X  · ·


· ·  Y  · ·


· ·  Z  · ·